Guidelines for reporting on studies

It is important that your manuscript gives a clear and complete account of the research that you have done. Well reported research is more useful and complete reporting allows editors, peer reviewers and readers to understand what you did and how.


To help with reporting your research, there are reporting guidelines available for many different study designs. These contain a checklist of minimum points that you should cover in your manuscript. You should use these guidelines when you are preparing and writing your manuscript. We strongly advise that you follow these five biological/biomedical reporting checklist:

  • Randomized controlled trials: CONSORT
  • Randomized controlled trial protocols: SPIRIT
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: PRISMA
  • Case reports: CARE
  • Preclinical animal studies: ARRIVE


Springer Nature continues to strongly encourage (but not require), where relevant, the use of the following checklists and reporting guidelines:

  • Observational studies: STROBE
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analyses protocols: PRISMA-P
  • Diagnostic/prognostic studies: STARD and TRIPOD
  • Clinical practice guidelines: AGREE and RIGHT
  • Qualitative research: SRQR and COREQ
  • Quality improvement studies: SQUIRE
  • Health economic evaluations: CHEERS


How to write a catchy and to-the-point title


Prof. Jim Reekers has offered a short guide outlining tips for writing a concise yet interesting title for your article. Click here to find out what they are.